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The basic objectives of the study were to enquire in to the involvement of various types of costs, the returns per rupee invested and the benefit thereof in different agro-ecosystems in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in general and valley of Kashmir in particular, especially the sampled districts. This study was based upon primary and secondary data. A multi-stage random sampling was utilised for collection of date from 432 respondents of four different agro-ecological zones. For major crops, the cost of cultivation were estimated by concept utilised by Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP), Government of India. The results revealed that fruit crop agro-ecosystem is highly remunerative than field crop and crop agro-ecosystems, though the fruit crop involve huge of investment in terms of different costs. The livestock based agro-ecosystem is also dominant in some parts of the Kashmir region with declining trend. The results revealed that the gross returns of paddy and apple, livestock and cash crop were Rs. 23250, Rs. 321000, Rs. 108920 and 106915 respectively. This study had its applicability in the daily routine life of any household dwelling in the sampled agro-ecosystems. The study could be of utmost importance in selecting the crop in which the region/agro-ecosystem had specialisation or absolute advantage.
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