Main Article Content
Climate change and its variability are posing the major challenges influencing the performance of agriculture including annual and perennial horticulture crops. Reduction in production of fruits is likely to be caused by short growing period, which will have negative impact on growth and development particularly due to terminal heat stress and decreased water availability. Hence, crop-based adaptation strategies are needed keeping in view the nature of crop, its sensitivity level and the agro-ecological region. The present investigation was conducted for major sub temperate fruit crops such as apricot, peach and plum in Himachal Pradesh. The investigation was carried out at different altitudinal gradients in fruit growing pockets of Solan district the state. The study was conducted to work out the relationship of weather parameters with phenological stages of major fruit crops and assessment of their vulnerability to climate change under selected altitudinal gradients. The average maximum and minimum temperature showed an increase since last thirty years at all major fruit growing areas, whereas, annual rainfall revealed an erratic trend. The fruit growing areas at 1000-1200 m amsl of Solan district obtained highest score (0.56) and were most vulnerable for stone fruit crops production while those at 1400-1600 m above mean sea level (amsl) were least vulnerable amongst the selected altitudes. To cope with climatic changes farmers have adopted various adaptation and mitigation strategies such as improved water conservation techniques, varietal shifts and crop diversification with other fruits like kiwi, pomegranate and vegetables in the region.
Bierbaum R, Smith JB, Lee A, Blair M, Carter L, Chapin FS, Fleming P, Ruffo S, Stults M, McNeeley S, Wasley E, Verduzco L. A comprehensive review of climate adaptation in the United States: More than before, but less than needed. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 2013;18(3):361–406.
UNDP. Human Development Report. United Nations Development Program. 2006;73-81.
Garg G. Assessment of climate change vulnerabilities in agriculture: A case study of Solan district. M.Sc. thesis, Dr. Y. S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Prdaesh; 2015.
Brevik EC. The potential impact of climate change on soil properties and processes and corresponding influence on food security. Agriculture. 2013;3:398-417.
Gautam HR, Sharma IM, Kumar R. Climate change is affecting apple cultivation in Himachal Pradesh. Current Science. 2014;106:498-499.
Ricketts TH, Regetz J, Steffan DI, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Bogdanski A, Gemmill HB, Greenleaf SS, Klein AM, Mayfield MM, Morandin LA, Ochieng A, Viana BF. Landscape effects on crop pollination services: Are there general patterns? Ecological Letters. 2008;11: 1121-1121.
Jindal KK, Chauhan PS, Mankotia MS. Apple productivity in relations to environmental components. In: Jindal KK, Gautam DR. (eds.). Productivity of Temperate Fruits. 2001;12-20.
Chand H. Assessment of apple crop vulnerability to climate change in Himachal Pradesh. M.Sc. thesis, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, Himachal Prdaesh; 2016.
Elbariki R, Aggarwal RK, Mahajan PK, Negi YS, Bhardwaj SK. Trend study of meteorological parameters and crop yield in Solan district of Western Himalayan State. Universal Journal of Environmental Research and Technology. 2014;4(4):215-226.
Liangzhi Y, Mark WR, Stanley, Wood DS. Impact of growing season temperature on wheat productivity in China. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 2009;149:1009–1014.
Aditya Rana RS, Chauhan RC, Sen V. Farmers perception in relation to climate variability in apple growing regions of Kullu district of Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Agricultural Physics. 2013;13(1):48-54.
Jangra MS, Sharma JP. Climate resilient apple production in Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh. International Journal of Farm Sciences. 2013;3(1):91-98.
Deschenes O, Greenstone M. The economic impacts of climate change: Evidence from agricultural output and random fluctuations in weather. American Economic Review. 2007;97(1):354- 385.