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Climate change which is the variation in the climate condition over comparable periods has some indicators like surface temperature, atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone layer area. This paper seeks to examine the state of the climate change indicators, their effects and how climate change can be mitigated. A review of data sources and literature reveal that global average temperature has increased more than 0.8ºC above the pre-industrial baseline over the past 100 years with 2016 and 2017 being the warmest years. Fossil carbon emissions also reached up to 41.5 billion tons in 2018. The extent of depletion of the ozone reduced to an area of 24.8x106 km2 in 2018 as against its value of 28.2 x106 km2 and 29.6 x106 km2 in 2015 and 2006 respectively. The effects of climate change on the socio-economic development were identified to include; natural disasters, food insecurity, diseases, human mobility and population displacement. To mitigate the adverse effects of climate change, minimizing our dependence on petroleum and fossil fuels by using cleaner and renewable energy sources, carbon capture and sequestration, proper management of land, forest and the entire ecosystem was highlighted. If these options are explored, climate change will drastically reduce while fostering global economic, environmental and social well-being.
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