International Journal of Environment and Climate Change 2022-01-22T04:26:02+00:00 International Journal of Environment and Climate Change Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">A sustainable world is one in which human needs are met equitably without sacrificing the ability of future generations to meet their needs and without harm to the environment and ecosystem function and service. Meeting this formidable challenge requires a substantial effort under climate change impact, economic development and population growth. <strong>International Journal of Environment and Climate Change (ISSN:&nbsp;2581-8627)</strong> aims to publish original research articles, review articles and short communications. This is a quality controlled, double blind peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal. It has long been recognized that the long-term viability of natural capital is critical for many areas of human endeavour under climate change impact. The aims are to support engineering science research with the goal of promoting sustainable development with environmentally benign engineered systems that support human well-being and that are also compatible with sustaining natural (environmental) systems.</p> Private Telecommunication Companies and Climate Finance: Evidence from the Niger Republic 2022-01-17T07:26:13+00:00 Hamidou Taffa Abdoul-Azize Ali Salé Moussa Soulé <p>Recently, the number of private telecommunication companies is increasing in the West African region. These private companies could be key actors in financing climate actions in their operating countries<strong>. </strong>Yet, the contribution of private telecommunication companies in financing climate actions in West African countries is not well documented. Accordingly, this study aims to examine the contributions of private telecommunication companies in financing climate actions in the Niger Republic. This study is based on secondary data collected through a systematic review. The literature search was conducted through Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the blog pages of the websites of the key private telecommunication companies operating in the Niger Republic. The findings of the study showed that several climate actions were executed by the key private telecommunication companies operating in the Niger Republic. These included both climate adaptation and mitigation strategies that targeted to combat desertification, fight against youth unemployment, alleviate poverty, reduce population illiteracy, and reduce the exposure of the vulnerable groups to food insecurity. Consequently, an implementation of a comprehensive public-private strategy between the government and the private telecommunication actors to finance climate actions could significantly reinforce the effort of the country to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals<strong>.</strong>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phenotypic Screening of F4 Breeding Lines against Bacterial Blight Disease in Rice 2022-01-10T04:54:52+00:00 K. Alekya B. Laxmi Prasanna M. Balram N. Balram P. Gonya Nayak B. Srinivas P. Madhukar <p>Biotic stresses are major threat to rice production. Among biotic stresses, bacterial leaf blight is one of the major diseases affecting rice grain production in rice growing areas. Present investigation was conducted to evaluate phenotypic effect of 50 breeding lines from a cross (Pranahitha//ISM/MTU1010) in glass house at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Jagtial by inoculating Bacterial leaf blight culture (DX-020) by leaf clipping method. Out of these 50 F<sub>4</sub> lines evaluated, twenty nine breeding lines showed resistant reaction with disease score of 1. Eleven lines showed moderately resistant reaction with disease score 3. Twenty nine breeding lines that were resistant with disease score 1, had excellent grain yield. Hence, these lines can be advanced to further generations. Thus the present study has demonstrated that phenotypic selection is successful in the glass house and these breeding lines with higher yield levels are expected to perform better in the field trials and further in the farmers fields with the good level of bacterial blight resistance.</p> 2021-12-18T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Micronutrients on Growth of Onion (Allium cepa L.) 2022-01-15T05:07:12+00:00 Siddharth Kumar Manoj Kumar Singh Mukesh Kumar Khursheed Alam <p>Onion is one of the most important bulb crop grown all over the India. It belongs to family Alliaceae and locally known as Pyaj. An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of micronutrients on growth of Onion (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) during <em>Rabi</em> season of 2019-2020 at the Horticultural Research centre of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture and Technology, Meerut (U.P.). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications. The maximum plant height (27.18, 43.32, 49.22 and 47.45 cm at 30, 60, 90 and at harvest after days of transplanting, respectively), number of leaves (5.11, 8.83, 12.87 and 13.98 at 30, 60, 90 and at harvest after days of transplanting, respectively), diameter of stem per plant (6.64, 8.97, 11.13 and 10.95 mm at 30, 60, 90 and at harvest after days of transplanting, respectively) and length of longest leaf at harvesting (43.56 cm) were reported under treatment T<sub>9 </sub>-RDF + Zinc Sulphate 20 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + Borax 10 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> whereas the minimum values for above parameters were recorded under T<sub>11</sub>- control. Hence application of RDF + Zinc Sulphate 20 Kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + Borax 10 Kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>is worth recommendable for formers to get significantly better growth of <em>Rabi</em> onion.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Climate Change on Arid Region: Case Study of Rajasthan 2022-01-21T09:19:48+00:00 Moushila De Meenakshi Dhote <p>The climate is changing at a very quick rate adding to the expanded global concern. During the most recent couple of years, the noble Coronavirus held the world by a threat that caused huge financial mishaps and loss of lives. Simultaneously, the extreme weather events kept on adding to the outrageous climate crisis. To mitigate the effect of climate change, the entire world met up and made various commitments made in various UN conventions, culminating in the Paris Convention to both implement mitigation and adaptation measures to reduce the emissions. The Sustainable Development Goals plan was recognized by all individuals from the United Nations in 2012 at Rio De Janeiro with an expect to propel a sound and created future for the planet and its people. It was in 2015 the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were embraced with 17 goals; with SDGs Goal No.13 addressing earnest activities to combat climate change and its impact in all topographical elements including arid areas. The paper is an attempt to give an overview of the Arid region, climate vulnerability, and to identify the main challenges which climate change presents to the region's future development. The paper further explores the impact of climate change in an arid area and the variation and alleviation ways to deal with address the worries of climate change and closes with methods of freeing the impact from climate change in a parched Rajasthan.</p> 2021-12-23T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Enhancing Growth and Yield Parameters in Mulberry through Different Levels of Drip Irrigation and Mulching 2021-12-11T05:48:56+00:00 H. O. Ranjitha S. Chandrashekhar <p>The experiment was conducted to find out the impact of levels of drip irrigation and mulching on growth, yield and quality parameters of mulberry. Among different levels of irrigation 0.8 CPE recorded higher values for growth and leaf yield (47613 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>) parameters. Compared to lower levels of irrigation 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 CPE. Also, mulberry plants mulched with black plastic polythene cover recorded higher values for growth and leaf yield (45143 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> year<sup>-1</sup>) compared to plants without mulching. The interaction effect 0.8 CPE along with mulching (T<sub>8</sub>) recorded higher values for all the growth and yield parameters compared to other combination of treatments and lower values for the same were recorded in 0.5 CPE along in without mulching plot. The study revealed that adoption of drip irrigation in mulberry at 0.8 CPE along with mulching is appropriate to enhance the growth parameters (plant height, number of shoots, number of leaves, leaf area and total dry matter content) and leaf yield.</p> 2021-12-07T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different Nutrient Management Practices on Productivity and Profitability of Double Zero Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) 2021-12-13T11:52:12+00:00 Gajjela Indira R. B. Yadav . Vivek R. K. Naresh M. Sharath Chandra Alladi Chandrakanth . Shivangi Ashish Nath <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>A field experiment was conducted at Crop Research Center, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel University of Agriculture &amp; Technology, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh in Rabi season 2021 with a view to compare the production potential under different nutrient management practices and also to find out the economic viability of this cultivar for soil quality. The experiment was analysed in Randomised block design (RBD) and the treatments comprised of Control (T1), 100% N (T2), 100% NP (T3), 100% NPK (T4), 125%NPK (T5), 100% NPK+ S@40kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (T6), 100%NPK+ Zn@5kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (T7), 100%NPK + B@1kg ha<sup>-1</sup> (T8), 75% NPK+ VC@ 2t&nbsp; ha<sup>-1 </sup>(T9), 75%NPK+FYM@ 6t&nbsp;&nbsp; ha<sup>-1</sup>&nbsp; (T10), 75%NPK + VC@ 2t ha<sup>-1</sup>+ Azotobacter (T11) and&nbsp; 75%.</p> <p>NPK + FYM@6t ha<sup>-1</sup> + Azotobacter (T12). Results revealed that treatment T11 and T12&nbsp; exhibited significant influence on yield attributes and yields of mustard as compared to the application of 100% NPK alone. The maximum gross return was obtained in T12 followed by T11. The highest net return was obtained in T5 followed by T12, T6 and T11, whereas, minimum gross return and net return was obtained in T1.T11 recorded higher gross return and net return but the B:C ratio was lower due to higher cost of vermicompost. Higher values of B: C ratio (4.23) was obtained in T6 and T5 respectively. The current study reveals that T11 and T12 exhibited significant beneficial for yield, yield attributes and profitability of mustard.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploration of Soil and Weather Factors on Mulberry Root Rot Incidence in the Western Zone of Tamil Nadu, India 2021-12-13T12:20:44+00:00 M. Saratha K. Angappan S. Karthikeyan S. Marimuthu K. Chozhan <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To record the occurrence of mulberry root rot disease, epidemiology, interaction of weather and soil parameters with the soil-borne pathogens in Western zone of Tamil Nadu during 2019-2020.</p> <p><strong>Study Design: </strong>Survey.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study: </strong>Surveyed in Coimbatore, Tiruppur, Erode, Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts of Tamil Nadu. Laboratory experiments were carried out at Department of Sericulture &amp; Department of Plant Pathology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore between July 2019 and Jan 2021.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>Per cent disease incidence of root rot was recorded in all surveyed gardens. To analyze the soil and weather parameters, the composite soil samples were subjected to textural analysis and weather data were collected from TNAU Agro Climate Research Centre. To predict soil temperature for all surveyed locations, the model regression equations were derived. The correlation analysis was done between per cent disease incidence, weather and soil parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The highest disease incidence was recorded in Nallampalli block of Dharmapuri district (54 per cent) whereas the lowest in Udumalaipettai block of Tiruppur district (0.06 per cent). The infected mulberry root samples yielded complex of soil-borne pathogens including <em>Macrophomina phaseolina, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium</em> sp., and pathogenicity was proved. The results revealed that root rot incidence was recorded in all types of cultivars, significantly in ruling variety V1 irrespective of its age, soil type, spacing, and irrigation method. Soil parameters like texture, temperature and moisture content were found to augment the disease. Per cent disease incidence had significantly positive correlation with the weather factors like air and soil temperature whereas negative correlation with relative humidity and rainfall.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Synergism of abiotic stress factors hinders the mulberry plant health and increases its susceptibility to the soil-borne pathogens.</p> 2021-12-09T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Impact of Different Drying Techniques on Quality Traits of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) Rhizomes 2021-12-16T05:15:52+00:00 Annu Kumari Yeluru Mohan Babu Eggadi Ramesh Tshering Ongchu Lepcha Suman Tamang Shrilekha Das <p>Under the present investigation, ginger was produced at the instruction cum research plots of the Department of Plantation Crops and Processing, Faculty of Horticulture, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal. The experiment was laid out in a factorial CRD. The study was undertaken with four ginger varieties namely Gorubathan, Suprabha, Suruchi and Suravi to evaluate the effect of different drying methods (sun drying, hot air drying at 50<sup>O</sup>C, 60oC and 70oC and microwave drying on time required for drying to a moisture content of 8 – 10% and to chemical composition (essential oil, oleoresin content and crude fiber content) of the end product. Results shown that Gorubathan variety has the highest essential oil (2.243%) and oleoresin content (14.840%) among the four varieties in this study, highest crude fiber content (5.253%) was observed in Suprabha and highest dry recovery (25.77%) was obtained from Suravi variety. In hot air drying, with increase in temperature essential oil, oleoresin and crude fiber content in dry ginger as well as dry recovery reduced.</p> <p>With high dry recovery (25.77%), essential oil (2.037%) and oleoresin content (13.510%) and moderately low crude fiber content (4.637%), it can be concluded that Suravi variety is best suitable for producing dry ginger. Apart from microwave drying, sun drying can be recommended as better practice, when hygienically conducted, based on essential oil and oleoresin content.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Krishi Vigyan Kendras and Socio-Economic Characteristics towards Adoption of Climate-Resilient Technologies 2021-12-18T13:31:30+00:00 Peddi Naga Harsha Vardhan Prabhat Kumar Pal Deepa Roy <p>Indian economy is mostly dependent on agriculture but climate change is the most threatening phenomena and addressing it as the biggest challenge now a days. ‘In order to reduce the climate change adversities, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) with the help of different Krishi vigyan Kendra (KVKs) operated a project called “National Innovations on Climate Resilient Agriculture”. To know the impact of the project a study was conducted in KVKs (i.e., NICRA, KVKs) of two districts of North Bengal i.e., Cooch Behar and Malda. One adopted village and one non adopted village adjacent to adopted village (as control area) were selected for study from each KVK-area.&nbsp; From each village 30 respondents were selected randomly i.e., 60 respondents from adopted village and 60 respondents from non-adopted village. A total of 120 respondents were taken for the research work. The result from this study shows that in the level of awareness, adoption of water-saving technology, in-situ moisture conservation technology, water harvesting, recycling technology and other climate-resilient technologies the mean awareness and adoption score is more in the adopted village than in the non adopted village. The education of household head, total land holding, outside contact score, total yearly income of the family, extent of participation, exposure to interpersonal media, household power access status, level of awareness on climate resilient technology and extent of association with KVK are positively and significantly associated with adoption score. It is also found that in non-adopted villages the socio-economic variables are influencing more towards adoption of climate-resilient technology, whereas, in adopted villages it is due to the association with KVK.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assesment of Correlation and Path Analyses for Yield and its Componant Traits in Soybean [(Glycine max (L.) Merrill] 2021-12-23T07:13:35+00:00 Subhash Bijarania Anil Pandey Ashutosh Kumar Monika Shahani Digvijay Singh Vinay Rojaria <p>A study was conducted with an aim to understand character association and cause-effect relationship in Randomized Complete Block Design accommodating 30 genotypes randomly in three replicates. These genotypes evaluated for twenty-seven traits: five phenological, nine agro-morphological, eight physiological traits (from field trial) and five physiological traits (from laboratory experiment) recorded and subjected to statistical and biometrical analyses. Positive association of flowering traits (days to tubercles formation→ days to flower budding→ days to first flowering→ days to cessation) and uncorrelated with days to physiological maturity can be precisely utilized in selection. Late physiological maturity increases seedling dry weight, plant height, clusters and seeds per pod while reduces leaf area index, seed weight and dry matter efficiency. With an increase in primary branches corresponding more secondary branches, cluster/plant, seed weight and effective rainfall use efficiency noticed. Effective rainfall use efficiency positively correlated with primary branches, secondary branches, clusters/plant, germination relative index, seedling length, harvest index. Towards polygenic complex trait seed yield per plant had high positive correlation and highest positive direct effect of effective rainfall use efficiency and vigor index I considered as selection criteria.</p> 2021-12-13T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Recent Rainfall Trend and Abrupt Changes Over Cavally Basin (West Africa) 2021-12-24T05:40:22+00:00 Blé Anouma Fhorest Yao Emile Gneneyougo Soro <p><strong>Aims: </strong>Analyze the recent variations in annual and monthly precipitation at 18 pluviometry stations in the Cavally river basin.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Data of month and annual rainfall data of 37 years (1980-2016) collected from the National direction of Meteorology for Ivory Coast and Guinea and from <a href=""></a> for Liberia.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Statistical methods are used to highlight the evolution of cumulative annual rainfall and the distribution of the different seasons over the period 1980-2016. Hanning’s low pass, Mann-Kendall classic test, modified Mann-Kendall test, Mann-Kendall seasonal test and Standard Normal Homogeneity Test were applied to identify the existing trend direction and significance of change over time.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The periods 1980-1996 and 1997-2016 could be considered as wet and dry periods respectively (with a rainfall deficit of 18% after the break in 1996). In addition, we observe a decrease in rainy days of strong accumulation that lead to a significant drop in total annual rainfall. Finally, an abnormal increase in rainfall during the dry season months and a decrease in rainfall during the rainy season months. This indicates an intra-seasonal irregularity (shortening of the rainy season and prolongation of the dry season) of precipitation.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The Hanning filter, M-K test and SNHT are non-parametric tests widely used in the study of climate trends. However, the additional consideration of serial autocorrelation (MM-K test) and seasonal trends (M-K-S test) allows to extend and refine the information on climate variability.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Organic Manures and Inorganic Fertilizer on the Leaf Characters of Banana 2021-12-29T04:32:21+00:00 Jaiz Isfaqure Rahman D. N. Hazarika D. Bhattacharjee <p>A field experiment was carried out at Instructional cum Research Farm, Department of Horticulture, Biswanath College of Agriculture, AAU, Biswanath Chariali to study the effects of organic manures and inorganic fertilizer on leaf characters of banana cv. Amritsagar (AAA) during 2016-2017. The research work was carried out with the treatments as follows T<sub>1</sub>: FYM (Farm Yard Manure) + Microbial Consortia, T<sub>2</sub>: Enriched Compost, T<sub>3</sub>: Vermicompost, T<sub>4</sub>: Microbial Consortia, T<sub>0</sub>: RDF (FYM + NPK). Healthy suckers were planted in each plot with spacing of 2.1m x 2.1m on 27<sup>th</sup> May 2016. The treatments T<sub>1, </sub>T<sub>2</sub>, T<sub>3</sub> and T<sub>4</sub> were laid out in certified organic block in RBD with 5 replications while the treatment T<sub>0</sub> was laid out outside the organic block with five replications. In the organics, T<sub>1</sub> recorded the highest number of functional leaves (7.97, 12.46 and 5.37) in vegetative stage, shooting stage and harvesting stage respectively. Highest leaf area of 2.69 m<sup>2</sup> at vegetative stage and 11.17 m<sup>2</sup> at shooting stage were recorded in T<sub>1</sub> while lowest leaf area of 2.41 m<sup>2</sup> at vegetative stage and 8.89 m<sup>2</sup> at shooting stage were recorded in T<sub>4</sub>. Leaf area index was highest in T<sub>1</sub>. Chlorophyll content index in both vegetative stage (45.29) and shooting stage (65.56) was also highest in T<sub>1</sub>. Comparing the leaf characters (number of functional leaves, leaf area, leaf area index and chlorophyll content index) under organic treatments with that of T<sub>0</sub> treated plants, it was found that plants treated with inorganic fertilizer had more number of functional leaves and better leaf character than that of the plants treated with organics.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Super Absorbent Polymer and Humic Acid on Maize Yield and Nutrient Uptake on Rainfed Alfisols 2022-01-03T11:36:50+00:00 Kasthuri Rajamani K. Indudhar Reddy A. Srinivas <p>The advances and development in agriculture depend not only on mechanization and new hybrid seeds but also on the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties which in turn help to increase crop productivity in dry land soils. A field study was carried out to study the influence of superabsorbent polymer at 2.5 and 4.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>and humic acid at 15 and 30 kg ha<sup>-1 </sup>alone and their combinations with recommended 100% fertilizers on yield, uptake, and photosynthetic pigments of maize grown on rainfed alfisols at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Palem, Telangana. The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with three replications, consisting of nine treatments. Further, results showed that conjoint application of hydrogel@4.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> + humic acid@30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup> along with 100% RDF package significantly increased the pooled grain and stover yield (7136 and 8457 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) of maize. Irrespective level of hydrogel and humic acid combinations with 100% RDF increased the macronutrient uptake by grain and stover, which further build up the total uptake. A similar pattern was also observed in corresponding to grain and stover yield.The chlorophyll “a”, “b” and total chlorophyll content (1.81, 1.69 1.54; 0.69, 0.62, 0.55 and 2.65, 2.46 and 2.24 mg g<sup>-1 </sup>in fresh plant weight at 30, 60 and 90 DAS) significantly influenced by application of hydrogel@4.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>+ humic acid@30 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>.&nbsp; In conclusion, the present investigation indicates the positive interaction between humic acid and super absorbent polymer which improved nutrient uptake and maize yield.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Weather Parameters on the Incidence of Thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman on Bt Cotton 2022-01-03T11:30:52+00:00 R. Sunitha Devi S. G. Mahadevappa <p>The field experiments were conducted during <em>kharif </em>season of year 2014 &amp; 2015 at Agricultural Research Station, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telangana state, India to study the influence of weather parameters on the incidence of thrips population on <em>Bt</em> cotton. The results revealed that the peak incidence of thrips population was recorded on 35<sup>th</sup> Standard Week <em>i.e</em>., last week of August (32.87 thrips leaf<sup>–1</sup>) during <em>kharif,</em> 2014 and two peaks <em>i.e</em>., 35<sup>th</sup> Standard Week <em>i.e</em>., last week of August (33.93 thrips leaf<sup>–1</sup>) and 40<sup>th</sup>&nbsp; Standard Week <em>i.e</em>., the first week of October (40.40 thrips leaf<sup>–1</sup>) were recorded during <em>kharif, </em>2015. Thereafter, its population declined gradually during both seasons. Correlations worked out between thrips population and weather parameters revealed that, one week (0.51*) and two weeks lag (0.65**) minimum temperature, one week lag (0.56**) morning relative humidity showed significant and positive influence, while one week lag (–0.44*) evaporation showed significant negative influence on thrips incidence. The prediction model developed for the thrips population revealed that the model explained the variation to an extent of 54 per cent in thrips incidence under the influence of minimum temperature and morning relative humidity.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Economics of Maize Cultivation under Conventional and Mechanization 2022-01-03T11:22:13+00:00 G. Manjulatha B. Sowjanya E. Rajanikanth <p><strong>Aim: </strong>To compare the cost and return analysis of conventional maize cultivation with mechanization.</p> <p><strong>Place of Study: </strong>A field experiment on maize crop cultivation by conventional and mechanization was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Karimnagar during Kharif, 2019-20.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>The cost concepts were used to estimate the cost of cultivation under conventional and Mechanization methods. The cost concepts viz., cost A1, cost A2 cost B1 cost B2 and cost C1, cost C2 and C3 were used in the present study.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The total costs of cultivation under conventional and mechanization methods were Rs.117794.78 and Rs.104137.92 per hectare respectively indicating 12 % saving with mechanization. Similarly gross returns were Rs. 146064.00 in conventional method against Rs.146988.00 in mechanized method.&nbsp; Net returns recovered were 52% higher with mechanized method i.e Rs.42850.08 compared to conventional method Rs.28269.22. In the same way returns per rupee of investment in conventional method and mechanization were 1.23 and 1.41. Mechanization in cultivation also saves time, labour usage and reduces drudgery.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization and Classification of Soils from Southern Agro-climatic Zones of Karnataka, South India 2022-01-04T04:21:05+00:00 Pradeep . K. S. Anil Kumar Prabha Susan Philip <p>The climate change and land degradation are both individually and in combination have profound influence on natural resource based livelihood systems and societal groups, but this land degradation is caused by land use changes and unsustainable management. The different land use systems practiced in southern agro-climatic zones of Karnataka have significant impact on soil carbon and fertility status of soils, a study was carried out to characterize and classify the soils of southern agro-climatic zones of Karnataka. Five pedons, one from each agro-climatic zone from cultivated land use were selected for the study. Soils of Hiriyur pedons were moderately shallow and rest were deep to very deep, red, well drained and appreciable amount of gravels were observed in all the pedons. Clay illuviation in sub-soil layers was observed hence sub-soil layer contained more clay than surface. The soil texture varied from sandy clay loam to sandy clay and clay. Bulk density of soil varied from 0.86 to 1.86 Mgm<sup>-3 </sup>in the surface. In all the profiles, bulk density increased with depth. Soil reaction varied from very strongly acidic to moderately acidic in Balehonnur and Brahmavara, moderately acidic to neutral in Hassan and Tiptur, neutral to moderately alkaline in Hiriyur. Cation exchange capacity was low and exchange complex was dominated by hydrogen and aluminum. Dominant cations were calcium and magnesium hence base saturation was high in the pedons due to leaching of bases and deposition in sub-surface horizons within the solum except in Brahmvara and Balehonnur was observed.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Genetic Variability Studies for Yield and Yield Contributing Traits in Rabi sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Relation to Drought Tolerance 2022-01-04T04:24:25+00:00 Kesoju Ravali J. E. Jahagirdar Chetana Singin Sheetal Tirkey S. S. Deshmukh <p>Genetic variability studies were useful for effective selection in a crop species. Presence of desirable variation and the amount of that variation which is heritable is the primary requirement of any breeding program for the crop improvement. Therefore any breeding program for crop improvement depends majorly on the knowledge pertaining to genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance. The genetic variability study was carried out for yield and yield contributing traits in thirty-seven genotypes of <em>rabi</em> sorghum with three checks namely M 35-1, Phule Suchitra and CSV-22-R at Sorghum Research Station, V.N.M.K.V., Parbhani during <em>rabi</em> 2019. A randomized block design was used with three replications and these treatments were evaluated and data pertaining to eleven traits were recorded with the objective to estimate the genetic variability for the quantitative traits. This investigation revealed presence of highly significant differences among the genotypes indicating presence of large amount of variability in all the eleven characters studied. The study indicated presence of higher estimates of phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) for all the traits when compared to genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and these estimates are of lower magnitude. Among the forty genotypes studied VJV 107, VJV 106, PEC 30, RSV 1921, RSV 1945 and RSV 1984 were considered as the superior genotypes as these recorded better performance. Higher estimates of GCV and PCV were recorded for the traits; days to 50 per cent flowering, plant height, panicle length, panicle width, fodder yield per plant, biological yield per plant, harvest index and grain yield per plant indicating selection for higher values of these traits of sorghum would be effective. Whereas high heritability coupled with moderate to high genetic advance was observed for traits like plant height, fodder yield per plant and total biomass per plant.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation on the Effect of Silica (DE) for Growth and Quality of Mango Kesar 2022-01-04T06:01:38+00:00 A. Vidya B. G. Hanumantharayya R. Vasantha Kumari <p>An experiment was conducted during 2012-2014 at Kittur Rani Channamma College of Horticulture, Arabhavi, Gokak (Karnataka), India to study the effect of silicon on&nbsp; yield and quality of mango cv. Kesar. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with nine treatments replicated five times. The results revealed that, the highest yield per tree (140.93 kg/tree) was recorded in the treatment supplemented in (T<sub>5</sub>) Half of RDF + DE 600 kg/ha which significantly more than the compared to control during 2012-2013, 2013-2014 and pooled data. It was noticed that the (T<sub>7</sub>) RDF + DE 300 kg per hectareas RDF + DE 300 kg/ha was best on the basis of physical characteristics like increased in length, diameter and volume of the fruit, and the treatment was significantly higher than the untreated control mango fruits. The treatment also helped in better chemical characteristics like increased TSS, total sugars, and reducing sugars and optimum physiological loss in weight, resulting in improved keeping quality at ambient conditions (25-35<sup>0</sup>C, 50-60% RH). The T<sub>7 </sub>treatment was judged as the most effective soil application for the mango cv. Kesar that helped in increasing the quality of the mango fruits during storage even after 18 days of storage. The same treatment was also found to be more effective and significantly more than the compared to control during 2012-2013, 2013-2014 and pooled data with respect to organoleptic parameters for the mango cv. Kesar.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploration of Genetic Parameters of Pea Genotypes Using Different Environmental Conditions 2022-01-04T08:23:40+00:00 R. P. Jaiswal B. R. Pandey V. Kumar S. K. Pandey <p>The estimate of genetic variability was observed for fifteen traits on fifty two genotypes. The ANOVA indicated that the mean sum of squares due to genotypes were highly significant for all the traits, respectively in all the environmental conditions. High magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation was observed than the genotypic coefficient of variation for all the characters under study. High genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variations were exhibited for number of secondary branches/plant, Pod bearing length, number of primary branches/plant, number of pods/plants, number of seeds/plant, seed yield/plant (gm), biological yield/plant (gm), First flowering node and harvest index (%) in all six and pooled over environments. The above finding revealed the presence of substantial amount of genetic variability for the traits, which exhibited high magnitudes as well as less influence of environment on the expression of concerned traits. Day to first flowering node, number of seed/pods , hundred seed weight (gm), harvest index and days to flower initiation exhibited moderate genotypic and phenotypic coefficient variation in all the environments. Low genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation was observed for pod bearing length in all the environments, this reveled high influence of environment.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Post Emergence Application of Herbicides on Growth, Yield and Economics of Dry Direct Sown Rice 2022-01-04T04:33:25+00:00 A. Upendra Rao K. Madhu Kumar V. Visalakashmi S. Govinda Rao <p>The field trial was conducted on sandy clay loam soils of agricultural research station Ragolu, A.P. India during two consecutive <em>Kharif </em>seasons of 2015 and 2016 .The trial was conducted in Randomized Block Design with three replications and nine treatments Viz., T<sub>1</sub>- post emergence application of Bis-pyribac sodium @ 25 g ai/ha at 20 DAS&nbsp;fb Amine salt of&nbsp;2,4 D @ 0.58 kg ai/ha at 40 DAS; T<sub>2</sub>- post emergence application of Bis-pyribac sodium @ 25 g ai/ha at 20 DAS fb&nbsp;metsulfuron methyl + chlorimuron ethyl (Almix) 4 g&nbsp;ai/ha &nbsp;at 40 DAS; T<sub>3</sub>- post émergence application Bis-pyribac sodium @ 25 g ai/ha at 20 DAS fb Ethoxysulfuron @ 20 g ai/ha&nbsp;&nbsp;at 40DAS&nbsp;; T<sub>4</sub>- post emergence application&nbsp;Bis-pyribac sodium @ 25 g ai/ha at 20 DAS fb &nbsp;postemergence&nbsp;&nbsp; application&nbsp; of&nbsp;Fenoxaprop P ethyl with safenor (Rice star)&nbsp;@ 625ml/ha&nbsp;at 40 DAS ; T<sub>5</sub>- post emergence application Bis-pyribac sodium @ 25 g ai/ha at 20 DAS fb postemergence application&nbsp; of Cyhalofopbutyl @100 g ai/ha + amine salt of 2,4, D @ 0.58&nbsp; kg ai/ha at 40 DAS; T<sub>6</sub>- post emergence application&nbsp;Bis-pyribac sodium @ 25 g ai/ha at 20 DAS fb Ethoxysulfuron&nbsp; @&nbsp;20&nbsp;g ai/ha+&nbsp;Fenoxaprop PEthyl with safenor (Rice star)&nbsp;@ 625ml/ha&nbsp;at 40 DAS; T<sub>7</sub>- Post emergece application&nbsp; of Penoxulam@&nbsp; 25g ai/ha at 20 DAS fb amine salt of 2,4, D&nbsp;&nbsp; @ 0.58 kg ai/ha at 40 DAS ;T<sub>8</sub>-&nbsp; Two hand weedings at 20 &amp; 40 DAS&nbsp; and T<sub>9</sub>- Weedy Check. The study in dry direct sown rice on weed management by herbicides revealed that, uncontrolled weed growth in dry direct sown rice reduced the grain yield by 46 to 54 percent. Post emergence application&nbsp;of Bis-pyribac sodium @ 25 g ai/ha at 20 DAS&nbsp; followed by Ethoxysulfuron&nbsp; @&nbsp;20&nbsp;g ai/ha+&nbsp;Fenoxaprop P Ethyl with safenor (Rice star)&nbsp;@ 625 ml/ha &nbsp;at 40 DAS&nbsp; resulted into taller plants, maximum number of tillers/m<sup>2</sup>, The highest dry matter production at harvest, more number of panicles/m2 filled grains/panicle, 1000 grain wt, higher grain yield (82-108 %t over weedy check) Straw yield besides&nbsp; higher gross returns net returns and B:C ratio&nbsp; among different herbicide treatments.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Farmers’ Information Sources and Constraints to Climate Adaptability in Ondo State Nigeria 2022-01-13T09:32:33+00:00 B. O. Akinwalere <p>The study assessed farmers’ information sources and constraints to climatic adaptability in Ondo state, Nigeria. Specifically, the study ascertained the socio-economics characteristics of the respondents; examined the sources of information on climate change adaptability available to both gender respondents; compared the perceived knowledge of climate change adaptability of the respondents; determined the factors influencing respondents’ access to information on climate change adaptability; determine the factors influencing respondents utilization of information on climate change adaptability; and also identified the constraints faced by respondents relating to climatic adaptability. Multi-staged sampling technique was used to select and interviewed equal samples of male and female farmers of 120 respondents. Both the descriptive and inferential analyses were carried out and results showed that the mean age of farmers was 43.5 years, 82.5% of the farmers were married, with an average household size of 7 members. The average years of experience was 12.3 years, average size of farm land is 4.7 hectares. Results showed that farmers had access to information mainly through family and friends (70.8%). Majority of the farmers perceived climate change through higher sunshine intensity (97.5%), the adaptation activity embarked upon mostly by farmers was mulching (97.5%). The major factor influencing respondent’s access to information was electricity (=2.58). The major factor influencing utilization of information was past experience about climate change (=2.47), the major constraint to climatic adaptability were power (=4.28) and poor information on warning system ( =4.27).</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Seed Priming and Foliar Spray of Nutrients on Growth and Yield of Rabi Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) 2022-01-13T09:31:09+00:00 P. Satish C. Sudharani <p>An experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Tandur, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU) for three consecutive years <em>viz.</em> 2015-16, 2016-17 and 2017-18 to study the Influence of seed priming and foliar spray of nutrients on growth and yield of <em>Rabi</em> Sorghum during the winter seasons. The experiment was laid out in&nbsp;split plot design with two factors. The treatments comprised were&nbsp;Factor 1: Seed priming (5) 1.Priming for 12 Hours in Water 2.Priming with ZnSo<sub>4</sub> (2% solution) 3.Priming with K<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> (2% solution). 4. Priming with KNO<sub>3</sub> (2% solution) and 5.Control (No Priming). Factor 2: Foliar Spray (4) 1.KNO<sub>3</sub> @ 2g in 100 ml of water, 2. Diammonium phosphate @ 2g in 100 ml of water, 3.Urea @ 2g in 100 ml of water and 5.Control (Simple water spray) with three replications. The pooled results of the trial indicated that seed treatment with KNO<sub>3 </sub>@ 0.5% and seed priming with KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4 </sub>@ 0.5% recorded significantly on par and highest among all other seed priming treatment. The 100 seed weight (g) and grain yield t/ha recorded significantly on par by foliar spraying of KNO<sub>3 </sub>@ 2 % and di ammonium phosphate @ 2g in 100 ml of water over the control. The combination of seed priming with KNO<sub>3</sub> and foliar spray of KNO<sub>3</sub> or di ammonium phosphate @ 2g in 100 ml of water or Urea @ 2g in 100 ml of water resulted in highest and on par grain yield of rabi sorghum.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Population Dynamics of Rice Insect Pests through Light Trap Catches and Its Relation to Abiotic Factors in High Altitude Tribal Zone of Seethampeta in Andhra Pradesh, India 2022-01-06T04:34:05+00:00 P. Udayababu P. Sowjanya P. Jogarao <p>Studies were carried out at Agricultural Research Station, Seethampeta in Andhra Pradesh during the kharif season for three consecutive years starting from 2017 to 2019 on the population dynamics of insect pests occurring in paddy and also to assess the influence of weather parameters on insect pests. The insect pests observed in the light trap catches were, Yellow stem borer, Gall midge, Leaf folder, Green leafhopper, Plant hopper (BPH/WBPH) and Grasshoppers. The light trap catches of rice insect pests were recorded at weekly interval during 32<sup>nd</sup> Standard Meteorological Week (SMW) to 52<sup>nd</sup> Standard Meteorological Week (SMW) and the data were correlated with the weather parameters. The results revealed that more number of adults of Yellow stem borer were noticed during the year 2019 from 45<sup>th</sup> to 48<sup>th</sup> SMW and the correlation studies revealed that that maximum temperature, minimum and maximum relative humidities had significant positive influence and regression value of R<sup>2</sup> (743, 638 and 726 during 2017, 2018 &amp; 2019). The population of gall midge was negligible during the year 2017 and 2018. Whereas, in 2019 peak was notice during 38<sup>th</sup> SMW (15 No’s) maximum relative humidity has positive relation with increase in the gall midge population. Leaf folder adults were trapped more in the light traps during the year 2019 with peak catches of 11.00 No’s on 42<sup>nd</sup> SMW and were positively correlated with maximum temperature, minimum and maximum relative humidities. Similarly, leafhopper, brown leaf hopper, grass hoppers were positively correlated with the relative humidity.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Land Configurations and Mulching on Plant Growth and Yield of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) 2022-01-05T04:37:11+00:00 B. Archana O. Sampath K. B. Suneetha Devi P. Ravi <p>Inadequate moisture supply and poor soil management are some of the major constraints for productivity in grain legumes like chickpea, present study was to focus on effect of land configurations and mulching in overcoming the constraints and their effect on growth and yield of chickpea. During <em>rabi, </em>2019-20, the experiment was laid out in split plot design at College Farm, Agricultural College, Polasa, Jagtial with three land configurations (M<sub>1</sub>- Flat bed, M<sub>2</sub>- Ridge and furrow, M<sub>3</sub>- Broad bed and furrow) as main plots and four mulching treatments (S<sub>1</sub>- Control, S<sub>2</sub>- Sesamum mulch, S<sub>3</sub>- Gliricidia mulch, S<sub>4</sub>- Paddy straw mulch) as sub plots and are evaluated for growth and yield. Significant performance of the growth parameters was observed under broad bed and furrow land configuration and in contrast, flat bed land configuration recorded the least performance. Among the mulching treatments gliricidia recorded the better performance over other treatments.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Morphological and Biochemical Bases of Resistance of Some Groundnut Germplasms against Tobacco Caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) and Leaf Miner, Aproaerema modicella (Deventer) 2022-01-06T04:47:21+00:00 Shaik Moizur Rahman K Vijayalakshmi Ch. V. Durga Rani S. Ameer Basha C. Srinivas <p>A screening experiment of forty germplasm lines was conducted at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad in <em>rabi</em>, 2019-20 and was laid in Randomized block design (RBD) having two replicates. Three germplasm lines <em>viz</em>., ICGV 16679 (13.71% leaf damage), ICGV 07222 (14.00% leaf damage) and ICGV 93468 (14.25% leaf damage) showed greater resistance than the resistant check, ICGV 86031 (15.04% leaf damage) against tobacco caterpillar and with respect to resistance against leaf miner, no germplasm line was found to be superior than the resistant check, ICGV 86031 (7.82% leaf damage). However, the germplasm line, ICGV 02266 (8.35% leaf damage) was next best to the resistant check. The various morphological and biochemical characters were recorded and correlated with insect pest damage and incidence to know their role in imparting resistance/susceptibility. Resistance to various insect pests in germplasm lines was due to significantly higher trichome density on leaf lamina, higher phenol and tannin content.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Estimation of Sediments in Rengali Reservoir, Odisha (India) Using Remote Sensing 2022-01-06T04:50:08+00:00 Siba Prasad Mishra Chandan Kumar Abhisek Mishra Saswat Mishra Ashish Patel <p>Reservoir sedimentation is a regular process and sequential path of sedimentation in reservoirs comprising of erosion, entrainment, transference, deposition and compaction of dregs carried into artificial lakes formed behind the dams. India houses 5334 large dams in function (2329 numbers before 1980) and 411 dams are in pipeline. The Rengali dam, functioned from 1984, that traps 50% of the total sediment load of the Brahmani River continues to thwart the growth and buffering of the Brahmani delta.</p> <p>Remote sensing (RS) and Geographical Information System (GIS) have emerged as powerful tools to create spatial inventory on Hydro-Bio-geo resources and the state of the environment. The RS/GIS and process-based modelling employed in spatial and dynamic assessment of loss in live storage of the reservoir by developing contour, aspect and slope map by using data received from LANDSAT sources.</p> <p>The sedimentation of the Rengali reservoir (functional from 1984) studied for three decades 1990-2000; 2000-2010 and 2010- 2020 by constructing contour, aspect and water spread area maps by using web based data (satellite downloads). The web based water spread area data analysed by GIS tool for integration, spatial analysis, and visual presentations.</p> <p>The results revealed that the decadal rate of sedimentation of Rengali reservoir is reducing with age. An appropriate reservoir operation and management system as per defined protocols considering sediment related problems is essential for controlling the ageing processes that may diminish the safety and shorten the reservoir life.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Different Drip Irrigation and Fertigation Levels on Yield and Economics of High-density Cotton 2022-01-06T04:51:32+00:00 N. Lavanya P. Laxminarayana K. B. Suneetha Devi G. Jayasree Lakshmi Prayaga <p>An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different drip irrigation and fertigation levels on yield and economics of high-density cotton at College of Agriculture, Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad, during <em>kharif </em>2019 and 2020. The experiment consisted of twelve treatments laid out in Factorial randomised block design (FRBD) replicated thrice.&nbsp; Three irrigation levels (irrigation scheduled at 0.6 [I<sub>1</sub>], 0.8 [I<sub>2</sub>] and 1.0 [I<sub>3</sub>] Epan throughout the crop growth period) and four fertigation levels (application of 100% RDNK in differential dosage as per recommendation [F<sub>1</sub>], application of 100% RDNK in differential dosage as per crop coefficient curve [F<sub>2</sub>], application of 125% RDNK in differential dosage as per recommendation [F<sub>3</sub>], and application of 125% RDNK in differential dosage as per crop coefficient curve [F<sub>4</sub>],) were included as treatments in this study. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Irrigation levels did not show any significant influence on yield and economics during 2020 and 2021. While among the four fertigation levels, application of 125% RDNK in differential dosage as per crop coefficient curve (F<sub>4</sub>) recorded significantly higher gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio which were on par with application of 125% RDNK in differential dosage as per recommendation (F<sub>3</sub>). Lower gross returns, net returns and B:C ratio were obtained with the application of 100% RDNK in differential dosage as per recommendation (F<sub>1</sub>) which were on par with application of 100% RDNK in differential dosage as per crop coefficient curve during both the seasons (F<sub>2</sub>). Further the gross returns and net returns produced under F<sub>3</sub> was also on par with F<sub>2</sub>.</p> 2021-12-16T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Geomorphologic Change in Nagavali River Basin: Geospatial Approach 2022-01-07T06:14:54+00:00 Siba Prasad Mishra Ashish Patel Abhisek Mishra Chandan Kumar <p>The Nagavali river basin (NRB), along east coast of India investigated for its land use and land cover changes (LULCC) in the golden spike period of Anthropocene Epoch. Attempts made to assess the vicissitudes, causes, and consequences of natural resources, and soil/water resources of the NRB in last three decades as significant changes in hydro-climatic variables occurred. The interstate basin is well developed in lower reaches (north Andhra Pradesh) whereas upper stretches, South Odisha is less organized.</p> <p>GIS and remote sensing are efficient tools for an ideal study of LULCC of the area. Present work evaluates the dynamics of LULCC of NRB. LANDSAT-5, LANDSAT-8, of 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2020, respectively, were digitally classified for land use land cover mapping. The changing aspects of LULCC critically analyzed for three span, 1990–2000, 2000–2010 and 2010–2020. Through Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of the NRB examined carefully to assess the recent LULCC pattern.</p> <p>Major changes are sue to exchanges of areas are in between forest and built-up land followed by water body. The transformations are from forest to human habitation; especially built-up area that constitutes major percentage of the total landscape. The study shows that emphasis is necessary on more water consolidation projects in the upper Nagavali Basin considering the long-term LULC trend analysis.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Irrigation and N-fertigation Levels on Broccoli Performance in a Polynet House 2022-01-07T06:18:31+00:00 Sathyamurthy Naik K. S. Kumar Sai Kumar Rondla K. Kishan <p>The purpose of this study is to see how the microclimate of the polynet house, irrigation, and fertigation levels affect broccoli output. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design within bounds beneath a polynet house with 320 m<sup>2 </sup>floor area covered with 50% perforated green colour net. Plant height, dry matter production yield, and its attributes were found to be maximum in drip irrigation (1.0Epan) + 125 % N at all growth stages, as per effect of scheduled irrigation and fertigation levels on crop biometric performance. Drip irrigation (1.0Epan) + 125% N resulted in a high higher yield (22.02 t ha<sup>-1</sup>); while treatments drip irrigation (1.5 Epan) + 75% N resulted as in lowest yield (18.02 t ha<sup>-1</sup>).The treatment drip irrigation (1.0Epan) + 125% N had a maximum NPK uptake. Polynet house covered with 50% perforation of green colour is suitable for realizing favorable microclimate for broccoli cultivation. Drip irrigation scheduled at 1.0 E pan with 125%N in the poly net house is recommended for broccoli production in central Telanganaagro-climatic conditions as it maintained high yield and water use efficiency.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Innovative Methods to Assess the True Genetic Potentialities of Newly Developed Inbred Lines of Early Segregating Generation (F4) in Baby Corn (Zea mays L.) 2022-01-07T06:19:25+00:00 K. A. Archana Sanjeev K. Deshpande <p>The innovative method to assess the true genetic potentialities of inbreds was an effective way to identify potential inbreds. The pooled analysis methods viz., simple pooled gca method, <em>per cent </em>pooled gca method and weighted pooled gca method was used to calculate overall combining ability. In the present study, two heterotic populations were crossed in the line × tester method. These innovative methods were used to assess overall combining ability based on pooled analysis using eight different economic traits in baby corn. In Population A, the inbreds <em>viz., </em>P48, P41, P30, P14 and P50 were considered as top five for yield-related traits. Likewise, the inbreds <em>viz.,</em> H95, H81, H51, H20 and H97 belonging to Population B were best combiners for yield and its related traits.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Scale To Measure the Attitude of Perennial Crop Farmers towards Climate Change in Tamil Nadu 2022-01-08T03:52:31+00:00 D. Bharath R. Velusamy J. Pushpa K. Prabakaran <p>The degree of positive or negative affect associated with a psychological object is referred to as attitude. Any symbol, phrase, slogan, person, institution, idea or ideal toward which people could differ in terms of positive or negative influence can be used as a psychological object. Attitude scale provides a quantitative assessment of attitudes, views, or values by summarizing numerical scores assigned by researchers to people's replies to sets of statements investigating different aspects of a central subject. The objective of this research was to construct and standardize the same. A scale measuring the attitude of perennial crop farmers towards climate change in Tamil Nadu is developed. One hundred possible statements were prepared to assess the perennial crop farmers attitude towards climate change using the five-point continuum. The S-value and Q-value of each statement were found. The scale was developed using the equal appearing interval method, which comprises of 10 statements (four positive and six negative).</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Phenotypic Evaluation of Advanced Breeding Lines for Resistance against Bacterial Leaf Blight Disease in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 2022-01-11T04:28:01+00:00 V. Srujana M. Balram B. Srinivas N. Balram <p>Bacterial Leaf Blight disease epidemically damaged the rice crop. Absence of resistance against BLB disease in MTU1010 is one of the main reason for these epidemics. Thus, there is urgent need to search for resistant source and subsequently, their phenotypic evaluation to validate the resistant source. In this paper discussing about the highlights of phenotypic evaluation of Bacterial Leaf Blight resistance in MTU1010 NIL variety of rice. In the present study, fifty advanced breeding lines along with parents <em>i.e.,</em> MTU1010 NIL X Akshayadhan NIL, were screened for bacterial leaf blight disease, Thirty-four breeding lines were shown resistance against bacterial leaf blight disease.</p> 2021-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) Modules on yield, yield attributes and profitability of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.)] in Western Uttar Pradesh 2022-01-15T05:06:21+00:00 Rahul Verma P. K. Singh Vivek . R. K. Naresh M. Sharath Chandra Durgesh Kumar Maurya Vedvrat . Satya Prakash Gupta <p>A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of integrated nutrient management (INM) modules on indian mustard (<em>Brassica juncea</em> L.) in Western U.P., variety Pusa Vijay at Crop Research Centre (CRC), Main Campus, Modipuram&nbsp; Meerut, during <em>Rabi</em> season, 2020-21. The soil of experimental field was sandy loam texture, alkaline in nature with pH, low in organic carbon (0.42%) and available nitrogen (181.60 kg/ha), available phosphors (16.50 kg/ha), available potassium (230.47 kg/ha) and available sulphur (7.38 kg/ha). Ten treatments of different nutrient management practices consisting T<sub>1</sub> Control, T<sub>2</sub> 100% RDN (120 kg. N/ha), T<sub>3</sub> 75% RDN, T<sub>4</sub> 75% RDN + 25% through Vermicompost (VC), T<sub>5</sub> 75% RDN + 25% through Poultry Manure (PM), T<sub>6</sub> 75% RDN + 25% through Press Mud Compost (PMC), T<sub>7</sub> 75% RDN + 25% through [ VC , PM (1:1) ], T<sub>8</sub> 75% RDN + 25% through [VC, PMC (1:1) ], T<sub>9</sub> 75% RDN + 25% through [PM , PMC (1:1)], T<sub>10</sub> 75% RDN + 25% through [VC , PM, PMC (1:1:1)] were tested in randomized block design with three replications. The experimental results revealed that yield attributes (siliqua length, siliqua plant<sup>-1</sup>, seeds siliqua<sup>-1</sup> and test weight), grain and stover yield (q ha<sup>-1</sup>). The increment in seed yield with application of 75% RDN + 25% through [VC, PM, PMC (1:1:1)] was 130.98 % over control. The maximum gross return and net return were recorded with the application of 75% RDN + 25% through [VC, PM, PMC (1:1:1)], however B:C ratio was lower than the use of RDF only but in application of&nbsp; vermicompost, press mud compost and poultry manure enhance soil fertility which improve the productivity and productivity of mustard.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Land Inventorization at Tardi-Babhlaj Villages of Shirpur Taluka Maharashtra State using RS and GIS 2022-01-15T05:06:50+00:00 C. Sudharshana Mallikarjun Dhotre Vijay Kumar Didal <p>Scientific evaluation of the land is essential in order to understand the suitability for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes and identification of capabilities and constraints of the land for various crops and their cultivation helps in appropriate and sustainable usage. In order to uplift the production, productivity as well as profitability from a farm land, the knowledge regarding various land resources and soil properties become pre-requisites. In this, direction, a land inventorization was carried out using RS and GIS techniques. The prime objective was to carry out land evaluation studies based on land based on land capability classification and suitability of lands for commonly cultivated crops in the region. Soil morphological features, physical, physico-chemical and fertility properties of the land were analysed and the results indicated that the soils are good in inherent properties even with the slight variation in the morphological and physicochemical properties. Land evaluation based on Land Capability Classification (LCC) revealed that, all the blocks fall under Class-IV with some of the limitations like, erosion, texture and low organic carbon content in soils. Suitability of land to the crops indicated that there are limitations with respect to erosion, slope and soil fertility. Based on the obtained results, corrective measures were suggested for all the blocks to reduce the erosion losses improve the soil properties for higher productivity of the cultivated crops. The study concludes that variation in soils in all blocks is due to the close relationship between soils, physiography and climate which are interrelated.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Exploring the Relationship between Yield and Yield Attributing Traits in Advanced Breeding Lines of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) 2022-01-17T06:48:47+00:00 Danish Mushtaq Bupesh Kumar Praveen Singh Manmohan Sharma Ashish Sheera <p><strong>Aim: </strong>Present study endeavors to explore the genetic variability for various agro-morphological and quality traits as well as to delineate the association between grain yield and its yield attributing components</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Randomized Complete Block Design</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> Division of Plant Breeding and Genetics, She-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu during <em>kharif </em>2020.</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>A experiment was carried out to determine the association between grain yield and yield attributing components among advanced breeding lines of rice to establish a well grounded selection criteria for developing rice varieties with improved grain yield. Phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) was found to be relatively greater than the genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) for most of traits indicating role of environment in the phenotypic expression of traits. Characters viz., plant height, total number of tillers per plant, number of effective tillers per plant, panicle length and grain yield per plant exhibited high heritability coupled with high genetic advance indicating their efficient inheritance from preceding generations.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Association studies indicated that characters viz., Plant height, total number of tillers per plant, number of effective tillers per plant, panicle length, 1000 grain weight and grain yield per plant had a significant positive relationship with grain yield per plot indicating their role in breeding rice varieties for higher grain yield.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Cause and effect relationship revealed that traits viz., days to 50 per cent flowering, total number of tillers per plant, days to maturity, panicle length and grain yield per plant can be exploited for indirect selection for improving grain yield.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Zinc and Iron on Growth and Productivity of Relay Grass Pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal 2022-01-17T07:35:10+00:00 Ananya Ghosh Arpita Nalia Rajib Nath <p>A field experiment was designed to validate the effect of Zinc and Iron on growth and productivity of relay Grass pea (<em>Lathyrus sativus</em> L.) in New Alluvial Zone of West Bengal. The experiment was carried out in BCKV, Kalyani, West Bengal, India during <em>rabi</em> seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18, following split-split plot design taking relay sowing of lathyrus in main plots [S<sub>1</sub>: Satabdi (IET 4786), S<sub>2</sub>: Swarna (MTU 7029)], three lathyrus varieties in sub plot (V<sub>1</sub>: Nirmal, V<sub>2</sub>: Prateek and V<sub>3</sub>: Ratan) and four foliar sprays at pre-flowering and pod development stages in sub – sub plot (F<sub>1</sub>: Control, F<sub>2</sub>: 0.5% FeSO<sub>4</sub>, F<sub>3</sub>: 0.5% ZnSO<sub>4</sub> and F<sub>4</sub>: 0.5% FeSO<sub>4</sub> + 0.5% ZnSO<sub>4</sub>) with three replications. First date of sowing (S1) i.e., relay sowing of lathyrus in satabadi (IET 4786) and foliar spray of Fe and Zn, either alone or in combination performed better in terms of plant height, dry matter accumulation, CGR, LAI, LAD, seed yield, stover yield and harvest index of different lathyrus varieties due to higher radiation use efficiency and profile moisture contribution.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Evaluation of Generalized Extreme (GEV), Log-Pearson Type 3 (LP3), Pearson Type 3(P3) and Gumbel (EV1) Distributions for Development of IDF Equations for Warri, Nigeria 2022-01-17T07:21:47+00:00 Itolima Ologhadien <p>The application of Gumbel (EVI) to the development of rainfall intensity– duration – frequency (IDF) curves has often been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds as it may underestimate the largest extreme rainfall amounts. The consequences of underestimation are economic losses, property damages, and loss of life. Therefore, it is important that water resources engineering infrastructure be accurately design to avoid these consequences. This paper evaluates the performances of four probability distributions; GEV, EV1, LP3 and P3 using the annual maxima precipitation series of 26 years for Warri Metropolis obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NiMet). The strength and weakness of the four probability distributions were examined with the goodness of fit (GOF) module of Easyfit software which implemented Kolmogorov - Smirnov (KS) and Anderson - Darling (AD) tests at 5% significance level. The Easyfit software fitted the precipitation series data to the four probability distributions and ranked the four probability distributions across the fifteen rainfall durations. Results show that for both KS and AD tests, GEV distribution was found to be best-fit distribution and it was applied to the development of IDF curves in Warri Metropolis, Nigeria. Furthermore, the IDF values obtained were applied in the development of three-parameter IDF models for return periods of 10 - , 15 -, 20 -, 25 - , 50 -, and 100-years. The mean absolute error, Nash – Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) indices computed for the IDF models increase with increasing return periods. The IDF curves and models depicted the general attributes of IDF curves and models. This study could be of significant academic value and improvement to professional practice in the design of storm water drainage systems. Therefore, the developed IDF curves and models are recommended to the Warri Urban Authority for inclusion in her stormwater handbooks and manuals.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bulk Density of Soils from Oil Palm Agroforestry Systems in Kogi East, Nigeria 2022-01-18T04:31:15+00:00 S. O. Amhakhian I. J. J. Otene I. O. Adava B. Muhammed E. C. Are N. O. Ozovehe <p>This study was conducted to assess the bulk density and textural class of soils of selected oil palm agroforestry systems in Kogi East (Ankpa, Dekina, Ofu, Olamaboro and Omala local government areas- LGAs), Nigeria. Random soil sampling was used to collect a total of 100 core samples from the five LGAs (20 from each of the LGA). Soil bulk density was determined using core sampler technique. Data collected were analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of GENSTAT Discovery Software. Significant means were separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5 % level of probability. The results revealed that the soil bulk density of the oil palm agroforestry systems in Kogi East, Nigeria were within moderate range of 1.15-1.47 g/cm<sup>3</sup>. Most of the soils in the studied locations were observed to be sandy clay: Ofu and Olamaboro LGAs were sandy clay while Dekina, Ankpa, Omala were loamy sand, sand, and sandy loam respectively.</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fractions of Soil Potassium and their Depthwise Distribution under Long-Term Nutrient Management Practices in Semiarid Alfisols in India 2022-01-18T04:35:21+00:00 J. D. Saritha S. Sridevi T. Ramprakash M. V. Ramana D. Srinivasa Chary <p>A field experiment was conducted on a long-term experimental plot during &nbsp;two consecutive <em>rabi</em> seasons of 2016-17 and 2017-18 at the college farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, PJTSAU. The experimental soil was non-saline, neutral in reaction with sandy loam texture. Different forms of soil potassium were studied with six different nutrient management practices in randomized block design with four replications. The results of pooled data of two years study revealed that significantly higher contents of water soluble potassium (17.77 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), exchangeable potassium (568 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>), nonexchangeable potassium&nbsp; (999 mg kg<sup>-1</sup>) and Total potassium (1.80%) in surface layer (0-15 cm) at flowering were recorded with integrated application of 50% N through FYM and 50% N through chemical fertilizers and it was on par with treatment applied 100% RDF through chemical fertilisers and significantly superior over other organic nutrient management treatments. A similar trend was observed at all soil depths (15-30, 30-45, 45-60 cm) and all the contents were decreased from flowering to harvest. All potassium forms decreased with increasing&nbsp; the depth except non exchangeable K. All the fractions were found to be significant in surface layer (0-15 cm). The contribution of different forms of soil K to Total K was in the order of non-exchangeable K&gt; exchangeable K&gt; water soluble K and similar trend was observed in all soil layers.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-20T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Various Sources and Levels of Sulphur on Growth, Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Uptake of Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea L.) 2022-01-19T09:29:42+00:00 Rameswar Jena M. Yakadri Spandana Bhatt K. Pavan Chandra Reddy <p>A field experiment was conducted to assess the response of Indian mustard to various sources and levels of sulphur during <em>rabi </em>season of 2021 at College Farm, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The experiment was carried out with three sources of sulphur (ammonium sulphate, gypsum and bentonite sulphur) and three levels of sulphur (20, 40 and 60 kg S ha-1) with one additional treatment (control <em>i.e., </em>0 kg S ha-1) in factorial concept and replicated thrice. Significant crop response was observed for plant height, leaf area index and dry matter production with application of ammonium sulphate among all the three sources. Among the levels of sulphur, the higher values of plant height, leaf area index and dry matter recorded on application of 60 kg S ha-1, which showed parity with 40 kg S ha-1. The similar trend was also noticed for seed yield and nutrient uptake (N and S).</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Effect of Different N and K Fertigation Levels of Capsicum (Capsicum annuum var. grossum L.) as Influenced by Nutrient Content of Capsicum under Poly House 2022-01-19T09:31:43+00:00 B. Gouthami M. Uma Devi K. Avil Kumar V. Ramulu <p>The experiment was carried out during <em>rabi</em> season of 2018-19 at Water Technology Centre, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad on capsicum (<em>Capsicum annuum</em> var. <em>grossum</em> L.) with respect to different nitrogen and potassium fertigation levels under poly house. The experiment comprised of three replications in Factorial Randomized Block Design (FRBD) with two factors {<em>i.e.</em> N levels (4), K levels (3) } and twelve treatments Viz; N fertigation levels of 0 %, 120 % (216 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) , 150 % (270 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>), 180 % (324 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) and K fertigation levels of 0 %, 80 % (96 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup>), 100% (120 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup>) respectively. The 100 % RDF was 180, 90 and 120 kg N, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> and K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup>. The source of N was urea, P was single super phosphate (SSP) and K was white muriate of potash (MOP). The N and K were applied through drip fertigation on every fourth day during different crop growth stages. In the fertigation programme, during crop establishment stage (10 DAT to 14 DAT), 10 % of N and K<sub>2</sub>O were applied in two splits. During vegetative stage, (15 to 46 DAT) 30 % of N and 20 % of K<sub>2</sub>O were applied in eight splits. During flower initiation to fruit development (47 DAT to 74 DAT) 20 % of N and K<sub>2</sub>O were applied in seven splits. From fruit development till final harvesting stage (75 DAT&nbsp; to 154 DAT) 40 % of N and 50 % K<sub>2</sub>O were applied in 20 splits in a total of 37 splits. The soil of the experimental site was sandy loam in texture with low in available nitrogen (166.5 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), medium in available phosphorus (81.1 kg P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> ha<sup>-1</sup>) and low in available potassium (245.4 kg K<sub>2</sub>O ha<sup>-1</sup>). Irrigation was scheduled at 0.8 Epan based on pan evaporation data. The total water applied to the crop was 414.8 mm. The total nitrogen content in capsicum shoots ranged from 3.41 to 4.57 %, 4.29 to 6.35 %, 4.43 to 6.67%, 4.76 to 6.86% and 4.53 to 6.58% at 30, 60, 90, and 120 and at final harvest respectively. In fruits, it ranged from 4.11 to 6.49 %, 3.92 to 6.35%, 4.01 to 6.25 % at 90, 120 and at final harvest respectively. The total phosphorus content in capsicum shoots ranged from 0.13 to 0.23 %, 0.42 to 0.92%, 0.14 to 0.33%, 0.12 to 0.24% and 0.12 to 0.20% at 30, 60, 90, 120 and at final harvest respectively. In fruits it ranged from 0.20 to 0.59 %, 0.24 to 0.57 %, 0.26 to 0.70 % at 90, 120 and at final harvest respectively. The total potassium content in capsicum shoots ranged from 0.87 to 1.83 %, 1.77 to 2.65%, 1.50 to 2.23%, 0.96 to 1.54% and 0.83 to 1.38% at 30, 60, 90, 120 and at final harvest respectively. In fruits it ranged from 1.02 to 1.47%, 0.98 to 1.35%, 0.93 to 1.28% at 90, 120 and at final harvest respectively.</p> 2021-12-21T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Economic Analysis of Climate Change Trend and Its Impact in Sivagangai District of Tamil Nadu, India 2022-01-20T04:53:51+00:00 G. R. Rajinikanth J. S. Amarnath B. Sivasankari V. Arun <p>The present study was taken up in Sivagangai district to examine the issues of trend in climate change, association between climate change and area, production and productivity of crops and impact of climate change on production of crops. The climate trend in Sivagangai district was studied using the descriptive statistics of skewness, kurtosis, coefficient of variation and compound growth rate of climatic variables of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall over the past 50 years from 1971 to 2020. Pearson correlation technique was used to analyze the degree of association between climatic variables and area, production and productivity of principal crops namely paddy, black gram and groundnut. Cobb-Douglas production function model was fitted to study the quantitative relationship between the average production of principal crops grown in the district and the climatic variables of temperature and rainfall and cropped area. Maximum temperature and minimum temperature were negatively skewed and rainfall was positively skewed. Kurtosis for maximum temperature was platykurtic and for the minimum temperature and rainfall of Sivagangai district, the kurtosis was Leptokurtic. The maximum temperature and minimum temperature were less variable and rainfall was highly variable. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed that maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall had significant association with area, production and productivity of crops in Sivagangai district of Tamil Nadu. Cobb- Douglas production function analysis revealed that annual rainfall had a positive relationship with production of paddy. On the other hand, climatic variables of temperature and rainfall were not influencing the groundnut and black gram production.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of Relationship between Profile Characteristics of NICRA Beneficiaries and their Attitude towards Climate-resilient Technologies 2022-01-20T05:21:17+00:00 Yeragorla Venkata Harikrishna Seema Naberia Palaparthy Steffi Sabyasachi Pradhan <p>To mitigate the climatic risk involved in the agriculture system, a shift from traditional cropping practices to climate-resilient practices of NICRA Project, is a strategy to increase farmers' income as well as agricultural sustainability. It reduces the risk to farmers from crop failure due to climate variations, by providing alternative suitable climate-resilient technologies. It also helps in the conservation of natural resources, increases food and nutritional security and helps in poverty alleviation by providing employment opportunities to the farmers. The attitude of farmers plays a crucial role in adopting any new technology. This paper analyzes the factors influencing the attitude of farmers towards climate-resilient technologies of the NICRA project in the Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh. We studied the determinants influencing attitude towards climate-resilient technologies by using the primary data. The ex-post facto research design was used and a sample size of 60 respondents was selected using a simple random sampling technique. Out of 14 variables, education, social participation, landholding, innovativeness, mass media exposure, extension contacts and trainings attended had a positive and significant association with farmer’s attitude towards climate-resilient technologies.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Response of Date of Sowing and Varieties on Growth and Yield of Niger under Eastern Ghat High Land Zone of Odisha 2022-01-22T04:26:02+00:00 B. B. Dalei S. K. Biswasi M. K. Meena A. Phonglosa L. Nayak K. Pradhan <p>A field experiment was carried out under All India Coordinated Research Project on Niger at Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station (OUAT), Semiliguda of Koraput district under Eastern Ghat High Land zone of Odisha in acidic soil during three consecutive <em>kharif </em>seasons from 2015 to 2017 to study the response of date of sowing and varieties on growth and yield of niger. The experiment consists of six dates of sowing with 15 days interval <em>viz</em>. 15<sup>th</sup> July, 30<sup>th</sup> July, 14<sup>th</sup> August, 29<sup>th</sup> August, 13<sup>th</sup> September and 28<sup>th</sup> September with two varieties of niger namely Deomali and Utkal Niger-150. The experiment was performed in split plot design with three replications. The pooled data for three years revealed that out of six different dates of sowing, the crop which was sown on 15<sup>th</sup> July resulted significantly the highest seed yield (563 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) with a net monetary return (Rs. 8083 ha<sup>-1</sup>) and benefit cost ratio (1.6). Niger variety Utkal Niger-150 recorded higher seed yield and economic returns. It was discovered that the environment had a greater impact on variety yield levels than the varieties themselves. Less dry spells, no wet spells, a high number of sunshine hours and a moderate temperature were all essential environmental factors.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Crop Planning Based on Monthly Variation of Rainfall and Rainy Days in Kawardha District of Chhattisgarh State 2022-01-20T07:45:22+00:00 Jubuli Sahu Ashok Pandit J. L. Chaudhary Umesh Singh <p>An attempt has been made to study the impact of Monthly rainfall variability and trend on crop production and productivity of different crops at Kawardha districts of Chhattisgarh state by using long term rainfall (1963-2015). Mean monthly rainfall was more in the month of August (283 mm) where as it was least in December (4 mm) in Kawardha district. The coefficient of variation was highest in the month of December (245 %) and lowest in August (33 %). The CV during July and August is less than 40 % where as it is more than 50 % but less than 60 % in June and September months. The CV is more than 100 percent in rest of the months. The CV in June month is more than 50 percent but less than 60 percent indicates that the crop operations like sowing of crops is uncertain in the month of June. July and August months have lower CV in indicating that the rainfall is stable in the months of July and August but again the CV increased in the month of September and it is around 48 percent in Kawardha districts. Low CV indicates that the rainfall variability is less during monsoon months where as other months show relatively a high value of CV i.e. more than 100 percent. About approximate 80 per cent of the total average annual rainfall concentrated in the south west monsoon and received during a short span of two to three months between June to September. Despite advance technology, still monsoonal rains influence the food grain production to a considerable extent. Kharif food grain production is adversely affected due to monsoon break or failure. This rainfall variability studies can help to plan conservation of excess water and its utilization during their peak requirement. For the purpose of crop planning the rainy days are taken into account and it also plays an important role strategic crop planning.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mushrooms Contribution to Farm Income and the Socio-economic Conditions Analysis of the Growers 2022-01-20T11:09:19+00:00 Nitin Sharma Manoj Kumar Vaidya Bharti Dixit Yachna Sood <p>It is very important to adopt new technology for agricultural productivity and development. Farmers' socioeconomic status influenced their decision to adopt the technology. It is therefore important to study the social status of the farmer. The analysis was based on data based on a survey of 60 farm households. sample was drawn by using a simple random technique from the list of mushroom growers. A complete list of mushroom growers was prepared with the help of the Department of Horticulture, Govt. of Himachal Pradesh and from the supplier of spawn. the analysis of data all the mushroom growers were classified into three categories based on the number of bags, viz., Small Category (≤ 600), Medium Category (601-1200) and Large Category (&gt;1200).&nbsp; Results of the study revealed all of the farmers and most of their families were literate. The literacy status of studied households revealed that 88.25 per cent of family members were literates at an overall level and the literacy index was found 2.69. Among all the three categories all the farmers were small farmers based on landholding. So mushroom farming was preferred by only small farmers. and most of the farmers had an orchard. It is concluded that the main source of income for the farmer is mushroom production. Mushroom contributed maximum in total farm income in case of medium and large category i.e., 43.44 per cent and 72.18 per cent respectively. Overall, its contribution was found 49.42 per cent to the total farm income. Mushroom producer earns more than 52 thousand every month from mushrooms with less than 1200 bags, which is much higher than the average of an Indian.</p> 2021-12-22T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Current Trends in Heavy Metal Removal from Water between 2000-2021 2021-12-27T04:26:22+00:00 Akomah, Uchechi Nwaogazie, Ify. L Akaranta, Onyewuchi <p>Recent fiscal growth has necessitated diverse industrial processes to meet the growing demands around the world. Toxic chemicals such as micro-pollutants, personal care products, pesticides contaminate the effluents of these industries and find their way into the environment leaving dangerous levels of heavy metals in the aquatic ecosystem. These heavy metals such as arsenic, chromium, lead, mercury, cadmium and nickel bio-accumulate and are very harmful to humans. Several water treatment methods were reviewed from 111 published articles covering a period between 2000-2021 on the progress of Heavy Metal removal from waste water including the use of low cost agro based activated carbon and Bentonite clay as part of “green and sustainable chemistry”.</p> 2021-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Review on Adaptation Practices of Affected People with Riverine Floods in Bangladesh 2022-01-07T06:17:40+00:00 Romana Afrose Meem Arif Ahmed Md. Shamim Hossain <p>Bangladesh is a riverine country. Every year flood devastated Bangladesh. Therefore, response and adaptation strategies of flood affected people are important for planning future mitigation action. Present study focuses to review on adaptation practices of affected people with riverine floods in Bangladesh to reduce vulnerability of awaited flood. Consequently, they adopt several adaptation techniques by their life long experience. The major adaptation practiced of the people are raise homesteads using ‘dig-elevate-dwell’ principle of settlement, cultivate flood tolerant paddy (e.g. bona aman), cultivate vegetables in floating bed, tube well have been placed on an elevated base or raised with an additional pipe, and cementing the base of tube well. People also use their indigenous knowledge to cure diseases during flood. Hence, holy basil, and basak (<em>Adhatoda Vasica</em>) are used to treat colds and fevers. On the contrary, durba grass, gando badal (<em>Gaultheria Fragrantissima</em>), garden mint, and Indian pennywort are used for diarrhea and dysentery. Basically, people’s indigenous adaptation techniques have helped them to reduce damages of property and lives as well. Therefore, various types of adaptation should incorporate at the local level plan and implement by the concerned authority.</p> 2021-12-17T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Gravity Fed Micro Irrigation System for Small Landholders and Its Impact on Livelihood - A Review 2022-01-11T04:31:52+00:00 T. S. Sherpa G. T. Patle K. V. R. Rao <p>Worldwide pressurized micro irrigation technologies have remarkably shown its effectiveness in water saving and increasing the crop yield with several other benefits. Although among the small land holder farmers, adoption of pressurized micro irrigation system is minimal mainly due to the small land holding and more system cost. Gravity micro irrigation is one of the best alternatives for the small land holder farmers with almost all benefits derived by the pressurized micro irrigation. Gravity fed drip irrigation has enormous capability for water and nutrient conservation. This review paper explains design, layout, features of gravity fed micro irrigation system, its suitability and benefits to the small farmers for achieving more yield per drop of water. The comprehensive attempt in the current review analysis is to enhance a most favourable methodology and technology to magnify and intensify the operation of gravity fed drip irrigation system in extensive cultivation and production. Further to accomplish the efficient utilization of available water resources for growing horticultural crops in hilly region of India, gravity-fed micro irrigation should be integrated with water harvesting system.</p> 2021-12-19T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##